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عبارات کاربردی برای مهارت نگارش در IELTS

اصطلاحات و عبارات مفید برای مهارت نگارش در IELTS

Agreeing 1

 to agree with someone or something

agree verb [intransitive and transitive] to have the same opinion as someone, or to think that a statement is correct

  • . Many people agreed with  his views about the war
  •  I completely agree with  Chomsky when he says that humans are born with a special ability to learn language
  • . Most experts agree that  dieting needs to be accompanied by regular exercise

STUDY NOTE: Grammar

Don’t say ‘agree someones opinion or ‘agree to someones opinion. Say agree with someones opinion

share somebodies view/concern/fear etc to have the same opinion, concern, fear etc as someone else

  • . I share her concerns about  the lack of women in high academic positions
  • . A lot of people share his view that  tourism will have a negative impact on the island
  • . This fear was shared  by union leaders, who saw the new law as an attack on their rights

 : subscribe to a view/theory etc to agree with an opinion or idea

  •  There are a number of scientists who subscribe to the view that there is a God who controls the workings of the universe
  •  Some people think that there are cases where torture is justified. I, for one, do not subscribe to this theory

be of the same opinion if people are of the same opinion, they agree with each other

  • . All three specialists were of the same opinion about the cause of her illness
  •  . Professor Dawkins is of the same opinion as Dr Jones

 : concur verb [intransitive and transitive] a formal word meaning to agree

  • . The committee concurred with  this view
  •  Most modern historians would readily concur that  (=agree without any hesitation) this was an event of huge importance
  • As most biblical scholars concur, the letter could not have been written by any contemporary of Jesus

somebody is right/somebody makes a valid point used when you agree with what someone says

  • . Darwin was right  when he argued that humans and higher mammals are closely related
  • . Cox makes a valid point  when he questions our ability to remain objective

Agreeing 2

 to partly agree with someone or something

 : agree up to a point to partly agree with someone or something

  • . Although I agree with  him up to a point , I find it hard to believe that this is true in every case

 : broadly agree to agree with most parts of something

  • . The conference delegates broadly agreed with  the proposals

there is some truth in used when saying that you think that something is partly true or right

  •  There is some truth in the argument that  there is a link between violence on our streets and violence on our TV screens
  •  There is some truth in  all of these theories, but none of them can fully explain the causes of unemployment

Agreeing 3

 when a group of people agree

  agreement noun [uncountable] if there is agreement on something, people agree about it

  •  Today there is general agreement that  pollution from cars and planes is threatening the future of our planet
  • There is widespread agreement on  the need for prison reform. = most people agree about it
  •  Geologists are  mostly in agreement about  how the islands were formed. =most of them agree about it
  • . The two sides were unable to reach agreement . = they could not agree with each other

consensus noun [singular,uncountable] agreement between most of the people in a group about something, especially with the result that they decide on a particular course of action

  • . There is now a general consensus among  scientists on the causes of global warming
  • . There was a growing consensus that  the military government had to be replaced

common ground noun [singular, uncountable] things that people agree about, especially when there are other things that they disagree about

  • . There are many areas of common ground between  the two philosophers
  • . Despite their differing backgrounds, they found common ground in  their interest in science

unanimous adjective if a group of people are unanimous on something, they all have the same opinion about it

  • . Medical experts are unanimous on  this issue
  • . They were unanimous in their opposition  to the plan
  • . a unanimous decision  by the three judges

 : widely held view/belief etc an opinion, belief etc that many people have

  •  There is a widely held view among  business experts that selling off a business to a management team is not in the best interests of the companies shareholders
  •  There is a widely held belief that  advanced western societies are becoming more and more criminalized

widely/generally accepted if something is widely or generally accepted, it is thought to be true by most people

  •  . It is now widely accepted that  the universe began with the so-called big bang
  • It is generally accepted  that electricity generated from nuclear power is more expensive than other forms of electricity

Comparing and contrast 1

 what you say when comparing things or people

compared to/with used when comparing things or people, especially when comparing numbers or amounts

  • . This years profits are much higher compared to  last years
  •  . The average male now has a life expectancy of 77.6 years, compared with  ۷۵ in 1960
  •  Total spending on health care represents about 4 percent of GDP. Compared to  most other advanced economies, that figure is low
  • . Mortality rates are lower for women as compared with  men

 

 : by comparison/in comparison when compared with another thing, person etc

  • . Young male drivers have far more accidents by comparison with other groups
  •  . Wages are low in comparison with the US
  • . In his early pictures he used rather dull colours. His later work is much brighter in comparison
  •  The amount of money spent on advertising milk pales in comparison to (=is much less than) the money spent on advertising beer

next to/beside preposition used when comparing things or people, especially when there is a surprising difference between them

  • . Our problems seem trivial next to  those faced by people in the developing world
  •  . Their achievements pale beside  his . = they seem much less important

as against/as opposed to conjunction used when you are comparing two figures or pieces of information, in order to show how they are different

  • . The company achieved sales of $404 million, as against  $۳۱۰ million in the previous year
  •  One study predicted that 42% of female university graduates would remain single the rest of their lives, as opposed to  just 5% of male graduates

 : unlike preposition used when saying that people or things are different

  • Unlike his brother, he had no interest in music
  • . The drug has very few side effects, unlike other drugs that are used to treat this illness

in contrast/by contrast used when mentioning the difference between two things, people, countries etc that you are comparing

  •  In contrast to  the south of the island, the north is still untouched by tourism
  •  The US and Australia, in contrast with  most other leading industrialized nations, chose not to sign the Kyoto Protocol on climate change
  •  Studies show that each execution costs $3.5 million. By contrast  it costs about $600,000 to keep someone in prison for life

in proportion to/in relation to used when considering the relationship between the amount or size of something compared to another thing

  • . People from Sweden pay the highest rates of tax in proportion to  their incomes
  • . His head is big in proportion to  the rest of his body
  • . Britains national debt was greater than that of the US in relation to  the size of its economy

relative adjective used when comparing the amount of something that someone or something has, with others of the same type

  • . In his article he compares the relative merits  of living in the countryside and living in a big city
  • . It is too early to make a judgement about the relative importance  of these different factors
  • ? How do we account for the relative lack  of women studying physics at university

Comparing and contrast 2

 to compare things or people

compare verb [transitive] to examine or consider two or more things or people, in order to show how they are similar or different

  •  A study by Nottingham University compared  the cost of recycling plastic bags with making them from scratch
  • . Galileo compared  the time it took for different types of object to fall to the ground
  • . The graph compares  the number of students joining the university to study history and chemistry

make/draw a comparison to compare two or more things or people and say how they are similar

  • . In her article, she makes a comparison between  peoples lives now and 50 years ago
  • . It is possible to draw a comparison between  the two poets work

STUDY NOTE: Grammar

 . Draw a comparison is more formal than make a comparison

 : draw an analogy to say that two situations are similar

  •  Some people have attempted to draw an analogy between  Americas invasion of Iraq and  the war in Vietnam

 : draw a parallel to say that some aspects of two very different things are similar

  •  The writer draws a parallel between  Henry Jamess elaborate style of writing and the ingenious patterns and curious details in Mintons paintings
  •  . Parallels can be drawn between her work and that of Picasso

liken somebody/something to phrasal verb to say that someone or something is similar to another person or thing

  • . Gambling is often likened to  drug addiction
  • . Critics have likened  the play to Arthur Millers work

contrast verb [transitive] to compare two things, situations etc, in order to show how they are different from each other

  • . In her novel she contrasts the lives of two families in very different circumstances

 : make/draw a distinction between to say that you think two things are very different

  • . It is important to make a distinction between peoples fears about crime and the real situation
  • . The author draws a distinction between allowing death to occur, and causing it

STUDY NOTE: Grammar

Draw a distinction is more formal than make a distinction

Giving opinion 1

 what you say when giving your opinion about something

 : in my opinion/in my view used when giving your opinion about something

  • . Their concerns are, in my opinion , fully justified
  • In my opinion , the cathedral is one of the worlds most beautiful churches
  • In my view , the court made the right decision

STUDY NOTE: Grammar

Don’t say According to my opinion when you mean in my opinion

 : I think that used when giving your opinion about something

  • . I think that everyone should be able to own their own home
  • . I think that hunting should be banned

STUDY NOTE : Grammar

In formal essay writing, people often try to avoid using phrases with ‘I’ or me, and use more impersonal phrases such as in this writer’s view or in this writers opinion

When you are writing essays, it is a good idea to quote another writer to support your argument, rather than just say I think that … This will give your argument much more authority. For example: As Hobsbawm (1969) has pointed out, the rise of the cotton industry created a huge demand for cotton goods

 : in this writer’s view/opinion used in formal essays when giving your opinion

  • . In this writers view, the present system is in need of reform
  • In this writers opinion, the arguments against using nuclear energy are overwhelming

it seems to me that used when saying that you think that something is probably true. You use this especially when you have considered a situation carefully and want to give your overall opinion about it

  • It seems to me that  there is some truth in her argument

 : I believe that used about strongly held beliefs, for example about moral issues

  • I believe that the death penalty is morally wrong

Giving opinion 2

 ways of saying what another person’s opinion is

Somebodies opinion/view is that used when saying what another writers opinion is about something

  • . The judges opinion was that  she was fit to stand trial
  •   . His view is that  consumers should be told the whole truth about the product they are buying
  •  The general opinion is that the combined vaccine works better . = most people think this

in somebodies opinion/view used when saying what another writers opinion is about something

  • . The important thing, in  Galileos opinion , was to accept the facts and build a theory to fit them
  • . Criticism is quite different, in  Barthess view , from ordinary reading
  • In his opinion , the portrait painter seeks to capture the moment when the model looks most like himself or herself

be of the opinion that/take the view that to have a particular opinion. These are formal phrases

  •  Until then, most scientists were of the opinion that  these variations in weather were compatible with established climate patterns
  • .  Levitt takes the view that  low prices are the key to marketing success

 : have/hold an opinion to have a particular opinion

  •  . Everybody has a different opinion of  what America represents
  •  . They held  the same opinions on  many issues
  • . Voters tend to have a low opinion of  politicians . = think they are not very good
  •  Teenage girls generally have a higher opinion of  themselves as learners than boys, according to a recent study. = they think that they are better

for somebody preposition used when saying what someones opinion is, especially when this is a general opinion which also affects their other ideas about a subject. For somebody is usually used at the beginning of a sentence

  •  For  Chomsky, language is an abstract system of rules which is used by human minds for transmitting and receiving ideas
  • For  Vygotsky, social factors play a fundamental role in intellectual development

as far as somebody is concerned used when you want to emphasize that you are talking about the opinion of a particular person or group

  • . As far as he was concerned , the failure showed the limits of military intervention
  • .  The election was a formality as far as the ruling party was concerned

from sb’s point of view used when saying what someones reaction to something is, based on how it affects them

  • From  their point of view , the system worked quite well
  • . It is important to consider the situation from the point of view of  the ordinary man in the street

Writing about advantages

advantage noun [countable] a good feature that something has, which makes it better, more useful etc than other things

  • The great advantage of  digital cameras is that  there is no film to process
  •  The advantage of  using a specialist firm is that  the people who work there have years of experience
  •  One of the big advantages of  this type of engine is that  it is smaller and lighter than a conventional petrol engine
  •  The university has the advantage of  being one of the oldest and best respected in the country
  •  The movement of the sea is predictable. This gives  wave power a distinct advantage over  = an obvious advantage compared to  wind power
  • Despite a few problems with the design, the cars advantages clearly outweigh its disadvantages . = the problems are not enough to stop it being a good car

 : benefit noun [countable] a feature of something that has a good effect on peoples lives

  • . Regular exercise has many benefits , including reducing the risk of heart disease
  • . Modern technology has brought great benefits to  mankind
  •  There has been a great deal of research into the potential benefits of  using genetically modified crops

merit noun [countable] a good feature that something has, which you consider when you are deciding whether it is the best choice

  • . The committee will consider the merits of the proposals
  •  In her book, she discusses the relative merits of  the two political systems. =she compares the features that they have
  •  The merits and demerits of  (=the good and bad features of) alternative funding systems were widely discussed in the newspapers
  •  The chairman saw no great merit in  this suggestion. =he did not think that it was a good idea

: good point noun [countable] a good feature that something has

  • . One of the good points about  the car is that it is easy to drive
  • . Each system has its good  and bad points

 : plus point noun [countable] a good feature that something has

  • . The small but powerful battery is another of the cameras many plus points
  • . The estate agents leaflet said a major plus point was the recently modernized kitchen

 : the good/great/best thing about used when mentioning a good feature of something

  • The great thing about living in a city is that you can go shopping at almost any hour of the day or night
  • . Her wicked sense of humour was the best thing about her
  • . The good thing about cycling is that you dont have to worry about getting stuck in a traffic jam

STUDY NOTE: Grammar

 . the good/great/best thing about is rather informal. Don’t use it in formal essays

the beauty of something is that used when you want to emphasize that something has a very good or useful feature

  • The beauty of the design is that it is so simple

Writing about disadvantages

disadvantage noun [countable] a bad feature that something has, which makes it less good, less useful etc than other things

  • . The main disadvantage of  this book is its price
  •  These vaccines have two serious disadvantages . Firstly, they are not 100% effective, and secondly, they are expensive to make
  • A major disadvantage of  using large quantities of chemicals is that they quickly get absorbed into soil

drawback noun [countable] a disadvantage which makes you think that something is not so good, even though it has other advantages

  • . The major drawback of  this method is that it can be very time-consuming
  • . Aluminium is very light and also very strong. Its main drawback  is that it cools down very rapidly
  •  Summer in the Scottish islands can be beautiful. The only drawback is  the weather, which can be very changeable

downside noun [singular] the disadvantage of a situation that in most other ways seems good or enjoyable

  • . The downside of  running your own business is that you are responsible if anything goes wrong
  •  . Everyone wants to be rich and famous, but it does have its downside
  • . Most comfort eaters enjoy what they eat, but the downside is that  they soon start to put on weight

 : bad point noun [countable] a bad feature that something has

  • . There are good points and bad points about  single sex schools
  • . For all its bad points , and there are many, it is still the best software system of its kind available

Explaining 1

 what you say when you are explaining something

this means that/which means that used when saying what the results or effects of what you have just said are

  •  Computer technology is constantly being improved. This means that the computer that you have just bought will probably be out of date in only a few months time
  •  There is a shortage of hospital doctors, which means that patients often have to wait a long time for treatment
  •  The banks current interest rate is 3.5%. This means that for every £۱۰۰ you have in your savings account, you will get £۳٫۵۰ in interest

STUDY NOTE : Grammar

You use This means that at the beginning of a sentence. You use which means that at the beginning of a clause

that is used when explaining the meaning of the previous word or phrase, by giving more information

  • . The book is about art in the modern period, that is , art since 1900
  •  Her son suffers from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. That is , he finds it difficult to pay attention or stay quiet for more than a short period of time

ie/i.e. used when explaining the meaning of the previous word or phrase, by giving more information

  • . The new law will come into force at the end of next month, ie  March 31st
  •  There has been a decline in the number of good jobs, i.e. ones that are highly skilled and well-paid

STUDY NOTE: Grammar

. ie is the abbreviation for id est, which is Latin for that is

. In formal essay writing, it is usually better to use that is

in other words/to put it another way used when saying something in a different way, either in order to explain it more clearly, or to emphasize the point that you want to make

  • Average incomes fell, while the incomes of the top 20 percent of the population increased. In other words , the rich got richer
  •  In a democracy, the government must be accountable to the people. The people should, in other words , be able to get rid of their rulers through elections
  •  Using this software would offer a 15% saving in space. To put it another way , this will mean an extra 12Gb free on an 80Gb disk

to put it simply used when saying something in a simple way so that the reader can understand what you mean

  • . What the treatment aims to do, to put it simply , is to make the skin grow back over the wound
  •  A romantic novel should demand a certain level of emotional involvement on the part of the reader To put it simply , the novel should not just describe a love relationship; it should allow the reader to participate in it

specifically adverb used when saying exactly what you are referring to, when you are explaining something

  •  Several prisoners reported some kind of physical abuse. Specifically , ۴۲ were beaten; eight were roughly handled; and four more were forced to remain standing for hours at a time
  •  What we need is a stable economic climate that encourages companies to invest on a long-term basis. More specifically , we need to get rid of the current high taxes on investment income

Explaining 2

 words meaning to explain something

explain verb [intransitive and transitive] to give someone the information that they need in order to understand something

  • . He was the first scientist to explain how  the process of evolution works
  • . The book begins by explaining  the difference between psychology and psychiatry
  •  There are a number of theories which seek to explain why = try to explain why zebras have stripes

 : give/offer/provide an explanation to explain something

  • . He attempts to give  a simple explanation  of his theory
  • It is possible that some recent research by NASA scientists could offer an explanation  for this phenomenon
  • . They were unable to provide a satisfactory explanation  for their behaviour

set out phrasal verb to explain facts, reasons, plans etc by stating them clearly and in a carefully planned order

  • . He sets out  his plans for an ideal Roman city in the first volume of his work
  • . The document sets out  exactly how  the money will be spent

go through phrasal verb to explain all the details about something in the right order, so that someone can understand it

  •  She begins her article by going through  all the reasons why people have opposed the use of nuclear energy

outline verb [transitive] to explain the main ideas about something, without giving all the  details

  • . In his introduction, Piaget outlines  the four main stages in a child’s development
  •  The purpose of this chapter is to outline the basic principles which form the foundations of the English legal system

expand on phrasal verb to add more details or information to what has already been said

  • . Melville saw the ocean as the source of all life. He expands on this idea in his novel, Moby Dick
  • . The author expands on this theme at length = writes a lot about it

 : clarify verb [transitive] to make something clearer

  • . This chapter aims to clarify some of the most important issues in genetics today
  • . In his speech the prime minister attempted to clarify his position on economic reform